cuba, viaggio, Barack Obama, Sicilia, Mondo
SCONTRI ALL'AVANA

Viaggio di Obama a Cuba per fare la storia

WASHINGTON. Nella primavera del disgelo con Cuba, Barack Obama ha calcato il suolo dell'aeroporto Jose Marti dell'Avana come se fosse il primo uomo a sbarcare sulla luna, tante sono le aspettative dopo oltre mezzo secolo di embargo e tanto il tempo passato da quando un presidente americano mise piede nell'isola, 88 anni fa.

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President Barack Obama waves from Air Force One as he arrives accompanied by first lady Michelle Obama and daughters Sasha, right, and Malia at Jose Marti International Airport in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Fernando Medina)

President Barack Obama waves from Air Force One as he arrives accompanied by first lady Michelle Obama and daughters Sasha, right, and Malia at Jose Marti International Airport in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Fernando Medina)

President Barack Obama waves from Air Force One as he arrives accompanied by first lady Michelle Obama at Jose Marti International Airport in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Fernando Medina)

President Barack Obama waves from Air Force One as he arrives accompanied by first lady Michelle Obama at Jose Marti International Airport in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Fernando Medina)

President Barack Obama waves upon arrival to Jose Marti International Airport in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Fernando Medina)

President Barack Obama waves upon arrival to Jose Marti International Airport in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Fernando Medina)

President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle Obama greet children and families of embassy personnel during an event at Melia Habana Hotel, in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle Obama greet children and families of embassy personnel during an event at Melia Habana Hotel, in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

President Barack Obama, center, and first lady Michelle Obama, visit la Catedral de La Habana in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama’s trip is a crowning moment in his and Cuban President Raul Castro’s ambitious effort to restore normal relations between their countries. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

President Barack Obama, center, and first lady Michelle Obama, visit la Catedral de La Habana in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama’s trip is a crowning moment in his and Cuban President Raul Castro’s ambitious effort to restore normal relations between their countries. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

U.S. President Barack Obama, center, with his first lady Michelle Obama, daughters Malia and Sasha and first lady’s mother Marian Robinson, take a walking tour of Old Havana in the rain, Sunday, March 20, 2016 in Havana, Cuba. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

U.S. President Barack Obama, center, with his first lady Michelle Obama, daughters Malia and Sasha and first lady’s mother Marian Robinson, take a walking tour of Old Havana in the rain, Sunday, March 20, 2016 in Havana, Cuba. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

The vehicle carrying President Barack Obama drives along the Malecon sea wall on its way to Old Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama’s trip is a crowning moment in his and Cuban President Raul Castro’s ambitious effort to restore normal relations between their countries. (ANSA/AP Photo/Desmond Boylan)

The vehicle carrying President Barack Obama drives along the Malecon sea wall on its way to Old Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama’s trip is a crowning moment in his and Cuban President Raul Castro’s ambitious effort to restore normal relations between their countries. (ANSA/AP Photo/Desmond Boylan)

U.S. President Barack Obama, left, and first lady Michelle Obama, right, greet children and families of embassy personnel during an event at Melia Habana Hotel, in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama becomes the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

U.S. President Barack Obama, left, and  first lady Michelle Obama, right, greet children and families of embassy personnel during an event at Melia Habana Hotel, in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama becomes the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

Violeta Arango and her son Oscarito watch U.S. President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle Obama arrive at Jose Marti airport, broadcast live on Cuban television inside their home in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama’s trip is a crowning moment in his and Cuban President Raul Castro’s ambitious effort to restore normal relations between their countries. (ANSA/AP Photo/Desmond Boylan)

Violeta Arango and her son Oscarito watch U.S. President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle Obama arrive at Jose Marti airport, broadcast live on Cuban television inside their home in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama’s trip is a crowning moment in his and Cuban President Raul Castro’s ambitious effort to restore normal relations between their countries. (ANSA/AP Photo/Desmond Boylan)

President Barack Obama, center holds an umbrella over him and first lady Michelle Obama as they arrive at Jose Marti International Airport in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Fernando Medina)

President Barack Obama, center holds an umbrella over him and first lady Michelle Obama as they arrive at Jose Marti International Airport in Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Fernando Medina)

epaselect epa05223508 Cuban citizens look as Air Force One lands at Jose Marti Airport in Havana, Cuba, 20 March 2016. US President Barack Obama arrives in Cuba for an official visit until 22 March to seal the process of rapprochement with the Communist-ruled island. Obama is accompanied by his wife Michelle, his daughters Malia and Sasha, and his mother-in-law Marian Robinson. The visit of Obama to Cuba from 20 to 22 March 2016 is the first visit of a US president to Cuba since US President Calvin Coolidge’s visit 88 years ago. EPA/ROLANDO PUJOL

epaselect epa05223508 Cuban citizens look as Air Force One  lands at Jose Marti Airport in Havana, Cuba, 20 March 2016. US President Barack Obama arrives in Cuba for an official visit until 22 March to seal the process of rapprochement with the Communist-ruled island. Obama is accompanied by his wife Michelle, his daughters Malia and Sasha, and his mother-in-law Marian Robinson. The visit of Obama to Cuba from 20 to 22 March 2016 is the first visit of a US president to Cuba since US President Calvin Coolidge’s visit 88 years ago.  EPA/ROLANDO PUJOL

U.S. President Barack Obama, center, walks with first lady Michelle Obama, who is holding the arm of her mother Marian Robinson, during a walking tour of Old Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

U.S. President Barack Obama, center, walks with first lady Michelle Obama, who is holding the arm of her mother Marian Robinson, during a walking tour of Old Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

U.S. President Barack Obama with first lady Michelle Obama during a walking tour of Old Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

U.S. President Barack Obama with first lady Michelle Obama during a walking tour of Old Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama became the first U.S. president to visit the island in nearly 90 years. (ANSA/AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

President Barack Obama waves to journalists next to a painting of President Abraham Lincoln at Havana’s City Museum during a visit to Old Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama’s trip is a crowning moment in his and Cuban President Raul Castro’s ambitious effort to restore normal relations between their countries. (ANSA/AP Photo/Ramon Espinosa)

President Barack Obama waves to journalists next to a painting of President Abraham Lincoln at Havana’s City Museum during a visit to Old Havana, Cuba, Sunday, March 20, 2016. Obama’s trip is a crowning moment in his and Cuban President Raul Castro’s ambitious effort to restore normal relations between their countries.  (ANSA/AP Photo/Ramon Espinosa)

Uno sbarco storico, ma offuscato dalla retata che lo precede, con una cinquantina di attivisti dei diritti umani arrestati «in modo particolarmente violento» durante una marcia pacifica all'Avana, come denunciano fonti dell'opposizione. Tra loro anche una ventina di esponenti del gruppo 'Damas de blanco', formato dalle mogli di prigionieri politici, all'esterno di una chiesa dove tentavano le loro proteste settimanali. «È stato brutale, ci sono persone con fratture e contusioni. Ci hanno picchiato duro», ha raccontato un oppositore, Antonio Rodiles.

Forse una prova di forza del regime di fronte alla dichiarata intenzione di Obama di parlare anche di diritti umani e di incontrare alcuni dissidenti. O forse un colpo di coda  all'interno di un partito comunista dove sembrano convivere sentimenti contrastanti, come dimostrano le foto sui giornali cubani dell'incontro odierno tra Fidel Castro e il presidente  venezuelano Nicolas Maduro, che per ora ha distratto dall'arrivo di Obama. Il presidente Usa stringerà la mano solo al presidente Raul Castro, non all'ex lider maximo, che resta l'icona di una  rivoluzione anti-americana esportata poi in America latina.

Preceduto di poche ore da un forse poco opportuno allarme Zika a Cuba delle autorità sanitarie, Obama, che è volato con il suo Air Force One insieme alla famiglia, alla suocera e ad una maxi delegazione di parlamentari e imprenditori, farà tappa  all'ambasciata americana per salutare il personale con relative famiglie. Poi una passeggiata tra le vie dell'Avana vecchia, rimessa a nuovo per l'occasione, con strade rifatte e facciate delle case ridipinte. Un fuori programma potrebbe essere l'incontro con il cardinale Jaime Ortega, uno degli artefici del  riavvicinamento tra Stati Uniti e Cuba. La famiglia Obama trascorrerà poi la notte al Melia Habana Hotel.

Domani il presidente parteciperà ad una cerimonia in Piazza della Rivoluzione in omaggio a Josè Martì, eroe  dell'indipendenza, quindi foto ufficiale e stretta di mano con Raul Castro prima della cerimonia di benvenuto al palazzo della  Rivoluzione. Seguirà un bilaterale. Nel pomeriggio Obama prenderà parte ad un incontro con gli imprenditori sulle  opportunità di sviluppo e cooperazione, mentre in serata sarà l'ospite d'onore con la first lady di una cena di Stato, sempre al Palazzo della Rivoluzione.

Martedì sarà il giorno in cui il capo della Casa Bianca parlerà ai cubani dal Gran Teatro dell'Avana Alisia Alonso, con  un discorso trasmesso in diretta dalla tv cubana. In tarda  mattinata è previsto un incontro con la società civile cubana, forse anche con alcuni dissidenti. Nel pomeriggio spazio alla  'diplomazia del baseball': Obama e la sua famiglia assisteranno  ad una partita tra la nazionale cubana e i Tampa Bay Rays in uno degli sport più amati in entrambi i Paesi. Poi tappa in  Argentina, per proseguire la sua diplomazia della distensione nell'America latina.

Un viaggio, quello cubano, ricco di appuntamenti, che suggella il disgelo avviato 15 mesi fa con la ripresa dei  rapporti diplomatici, seguiti parzialmente da quelli  turistico-commerciali, anche se difficilmente il Congresso dominato dai repubblicani revocherà a breve l'embargo. Ma Obama  scommette molto sull'interazione economica, nonostante i piani di liberalizzazione attuati da Raul Castro si muovano con la  stessa lentezza delle vecchie carcasse di auto americane degli anni '50 che circolano ancora nell'isola.

Intanto però Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide è diventata la prima compagnia alberghiera americana a firmare un accordo  con Cuba dai tempi della rivoluzione del 1959. Ad annunciarlo è stata la stessa società alla vigilia della visita di Obama. Starwood gestirà e metterà sul mercato due proprietà  all'Avana e ha firmato una lettera di intenti per gestirne una terza, grazie ad uno speciale permesso dal dipartimento del Tesoro americano che la esime dall'embargo.

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